Dysuria is the sensation of burning, pain, or discomfort on urination usually felt in the tube which carries urine out of your bladder or the area surrounding your genitals. This condition affects the bladder or nearby parts of your body causing painful urination.
There are multiple possible causes for this symptom and many of them are highly treatable. The most common cause of dysuria is an infection and presents as prostatitis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, or urethritis. It depends on the area of the urogenital tract that is affected.
Causes of dysuria
Different conditions can cause painful urination. Luckily, most of these causes are treatable. Here, are some causes of painful urination.
1. Urinary tract infection
A Urinary tract infection can make urination painful. UTI occurs due to excess bacteria build up in the urinary tract. A person with a UTI may experience symptoms, like;
- needing to urinate frequently
- passing cloudy or blood-tinged urine
- foul-smelling urine
- pain in the side and back
2. Sexually transmitted infection
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), like herpes, chlamydia, and gonorrhea can all affect the urinary tract and cause burning pain when urinating. Symptoms may vary depending on the type of STI. For instance, herpes causes blister-like lesions on the genitals.
3. Prostate infection
Short-Term bacterial infection can lead to prostatitis or prostate infection. Chronic inflammation from other conditions like STI can also cause prostatitis.
4. Kidney stones
Kidney stones can also cause painful urination. Stones in kidneys are collections of materials, like calcium or uric acid. These materials are build up and form hardened stones in and around your kidneys. The kidney stones will, sometimes, lodge themselves near the area where urine enters the bladder. Thus, causing painful urination.
5. Ovarian cysts
Ovarian cysts, much like kidney stones, are an example of how anything outside the bladder can press on it and result in painful urination. These cysts can develop on one or both of your ovaries, which sit on either side of the bladder.
6. Interstitial cystitis
It is also named as bladder pain syndrome. It is a condition which causes chronic irritation of the bladder which may last 6 weeks or more without an underlying infection.
7. Chemical sensitivity
Sometimes, chemicals external to the body, like fragrances, can irritate tissues of the body. During urination, this irritation may be more obvious, and pain may occur. Products which can cause chemical sensitivity include;
- scented toilet paper
- vaginal lubricants
- contraceptive foams
8. Vaginal infection or irritation
It is also known as vaginitis or vaginosis. A vaginal infection can occur because of the overgrowth of yeast or bacteria. Trichomoniasis which is an STI can also cause a vaginal infection.
Some medications can also inflame or irritate the bladder tissues. Medications, counting those that doctors suggest treating bladder cancer, may inflame the bladder tissues. This can often cause severe burning pain when urinating.
If an individual has started a new medicine and begins to feel pain when urinating, should consult the doctor and ask if the sign may be a side effect of the medicine. However, they should not stop the medication without asking a doctor first.
10. Bladder cancer
Bladder cancer occurs due to the development of cancer cells in the bladder. Typically, feeling severe pain when urinating is not an early sign of this condition. Instead, an individual generally notices blood in the urine.
Differences in females and males
Both males and females can experience pain during urination, and the causes may be anatomy-dependent. However, it is more common in women.
For instance, urethras of females are shorter than males. Therefore, infectious bacteria can often enter the bladder easily, which can cause UTIs.
An individual can talk to their health care professional about their risks for painful urination on the basis of their sex as well as their medical history.