A study, published in the journal Nutrition Research, says that dietary grape powder can be used to promote the production of cytokines in the body. The research was conducted by a team of experts at the University of California, Davis.
The researchers tested dietary grape powder by analyzing its effects on obese volunteers. This respective, randomized, double-blind crossover study reveals that consuming dietary grape powder enhanced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines among obese participants. In particular, the production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was augmented.
The study reports that when obese people consume dietary grape powder, they exhibit increased IL-1B and IL-6 production by peripheral blood Monocytes. Note this occurs after bacterial lipopolysaccharide stimulation.
The research used data from a 24-hour dietary recall to confirm whether the differences in dietary patterns or the intake of grape powder stimulated increased cytokine production. The dietary grape powder was hypothesized to cause the event.
The participants were divided into two groups,
- The one consuming grape powder
The dietary recall data analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between the total energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein intakes of these obese participants. They based this on the participants’ consumption of the following foods,
- Meats and poultry
- Nuts and seeds
The volunteers who were given the grape powder showed a decrease in their intake of butyric and capric acids. Plus the decrease in their intake of cheese and fruit was also associated with their intake of dietary grape powder.
The research team concluded that the participants’ diets did not influence the production of cytokines by monocytes. However, the consumption of dietary grape powder led to an increase in cytokine production after lipopolysaccharide-stimulation of monocytes in the obese participants.
More about cytokines
Cytokines act as molecular messengers between cells in a human body. They interact with immune cells to regulate corporal responses to diseases and infections. Moreover, they stimulate the production of blood cells. In addition, cytokines function as part of different processes like development, tissue maintenance, and repair.
The nomenclature of cytokines depends upon,
- Site of production i.e. the type of cell that makes cytokines
- Function i.e. the action they have in the body
For example, interleukins are named so because they are made by one leukocyte but act on other leukocytes.
IL-1B is a pro-inflammatory cytokine. It is expressed by a variety of cells including,
- Natural killer (NK) cells
It belongs to the IL-1 family that includes the IL-1a, and IL1-RN genes. Moreover, it is proteolytically activated by the Caspase-1 (CASP1/ICE) gene which is involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of cells. IL-1B activation of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) initiates inflammatory hypersensitivity. Furthermore, it is also linked to conditions like septic shock and wound healing.
On the other hand, IL-6 is an endogenous chemical, active during inflammation and B-cell maturation. It is an immune protein and a pyrogen, responsible for the fever caused by autoimmune, infectious, and non-infectious diseases. The body produces IL-6 in areas with either acute or chronic inflammation. As per the experts, IL-6 also causes increased susceptibility to diabetes mellitus and the systemic form of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.